Many people have tried to explain the meaning of the word Pelasgoi or Pelasgian. We already know the inhabitants of Pelasgia ( Argos capital) were called Danaioi(Argives)  were named after their king Danaus.



In the historical sources, the Danuna are known by many different names such as Denyen, Danunites, Danaoi, Danaus, Danaids, Dene, Danai, Danaian.

These were the same people who attacked Troy and wrongly considered by the historiography as Hellenes(Greeks).

Danaus, or Danaos ( Δαναός), was a mythological character, twin brother of Aegyptus and son of Achiroe and Belus, a mythical king of Egypt. The myth of Danaus is a foundation legend of Argos, one of the foremost Mycenaean cities of the Peloponnesus. In Homer’s Iliad, “Danaans” (”tribe of Danaus”) and “Argives” commonly designate the “””””Greek””””” forces opposed to the Trojans.



Evidently Argeoi, Pelasgjoi, Danaidai, Mykenaoi, Argives, Pelasgos, Pelasgjikos, Pelasgjia, Argolis are interchangeable for each other. They represent the same people and land, the Pelasgians of Peloponnesus originally from Egypt. 

They inhabited a vast territory, Read more of this post


Since Ventris “”deciphered”” the Mycenaean Scripts nobody was interested anymore to develop some thorough study in the already “known” languages like for ex. Ancient “”Greek””.

Now people who study grammar and orthography of the Ancient Greek language is very familiar to the diacritic marks placed above the initial vowel in different words. The linguists already know the meaning of them like ā or ă placed above alfa. According to the linguists they are used to show either a long vowel or a short one. They explain also some other strange marks meaning: “the signs placed above the initial vowel indicate the presence of an aspirated sound or the absence of an additional sound”. They are called breathing. In other words breathing always occur before the first vowel sound of a word, and are either hard or soft.

They are indicated by either a or a ` over the first vowel. The former (hard) indicated an aspirated vowel (in other words, pronounce the word as if it began with an English “h” sound. The latter (soft) means there is no “h” sound, and simply pronounce the word as written (Oxcord University Press. ISBN 0-19-514956-4)

Let’s take a quick look at them:

Aspirate or rough breathing: a sign placed over an initial vowel or initial rho to indicate an initial h-sound


Thus between the linguists is establishet that because of that mark the above words are pronounced helios and hodos. To justify that they give the following explanation:


In the old Attic alphabet Η or heta represented the h-sound. In the Ionic alphabet, the same symbol represented a vowel, eta, because the Ionic dialect had lost aspirations and had no need for heta.


This explanation could be true but it proves exactly the opposite, that Read more of this post


In considering whether the Modern Greek language is a natural descendant of the Ancient one, I have complete confidence in replying in the negative. I have many reasons thinking this.

Although Modern Greek language is often credited or it often ‘credits’ itself, being a Hellenic dialect continuously spoken in the Greek family hearths, generation after generation, it doesn’t look to me it really happened. It was another place where this language has been continuously spoken: the Church.

Yes it’s been spoken from a limited number of middle class orthodox believers Ottoman families ,  of some high ranking Christian Church clergy and a very small minority of Christian educated [in the best case since the Byzantine Church artificially adopted the Koine (and not the Attic, like some people like to say) language for liturgic purposes. Other than that no one spoke Greek before Greece was a country .

The Koine itself was a semi artificial language, and was spread to the East mostly for liturgics and political and comercial purposes, and never represented the original language of the Hellenes, like it never represented the Hellenes themselves.

The exorbitant fantasy of the theory in which the Modern Greeks are Read more of this post


Our modern understanding of the “nationality” is a complex one and  we are not certain if we could apply the same toward the people of antiquity. However we will follow a simple rule: During all the times every person is borned with a nationality. This rule must be valid for the people who in Classical Era were called Hellenes. We will start right there, Classical Era. It has been widely accepted that the classical Hellenes were not an uniform body of people, many nationalities were forming  the “nation” called Hellenes.

It was  two mayor distinct groups among  many other nationalities :

  1. Pelasgians(which were not proper Hellenes), a pre-Hellenic people which include:

a.    Ionians

b.    Athenians

c.     Aeolians

d.    Islanders


  2.   Hellenes

            a. Dorians


Read more of this post


The confusion created in certain terminology especially those used in theology and religion is leading the linguists  in the wrong direction sometime. One of them is the word GOD.
God Our Saviour (No. 198) The identity of the Saviour is often confused among the Christians.The bible seems to identify both Christ and God as the Saviour.

What about the Ancient “”Greeks””.



as a title of God: Poseidon Soter

any heroized leaders of Hellenistic dynasties, see hero cult

as a title of liberators : Ptolemy I Soter, Antiochus I Soter, Demetrius I Soter Menander

a title of Jesus, most particularly in the Pope Soter

Therefore the word sotër(zotër) in Ancient Greek , doesn’t mean simply saviour. It means God, Deity, Lord, King etc

What about the Albanian?

English (8 entries.)

 Shqip  (ALBANIAN)


zot {m} (shumës zotër), perëndi 


   zot {m} (shumës zotër),perëndi  


   të qenit zot


   zot {m} (shumës zotër), perëndi


   zot {m}

gentleman (plural gentlemen)

   zotëri {m} (tr. shq. zotërinj)

master (noun)

   zotëri {m}, zotërues / zotëruese

What a huge coincidence!!!

Therefore in Albanian it means exactly the same thing/s Read more of this post

The falsification of the inscriptions transliteration in the “”Greek”” Corpus of Epigraphy?

Searchable Greek Inscriptions

A Scholarly Tool in Progress

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2 fjali

It is clearly visible not SIMIA LYKISKOI but FIMIA XIYNEPON(FIMIA HYJNERON)= The child deifies

The unusual word XIYNERON, which falls short of our expectation to be a “Greek” one,  possibly a variation of the ευχη (pray to the Gods),  “strangely” looks very Albanian: hyjneron a verb (3-rd singular) derived from the noun Hy-u=God, Deity

English (2 entries.)                                                                                        Shqip (2 hyrje.)
         deity                                                                                        hyjni (sh hyjni), hy {m} (tsh hyu) (sh hyj)
          God                                                                                                              hy {m} (tsh hyu) (sh hyj)



The child is deified, let it be for the good.


The Knowledge, the boiling Sun, the Sacred Goat, the Day and much more, all in one Zeus

 The names origin and the functions of  the ancient Gods have been always a debatable issue among the linguists, especially because they are related with nacionalistic feeling and the delicate problem of the different people’s religions.

 Let’s analyze some of them.

The God is seen from different cultures as the following:

The God is seen from different cultures as the following:

  1.        Semitic model :God is One and Alone. He, the sole, singular God, is an unknown and unknowable Divine Person, Who Wills good and evil alike (cf. Judaism & Islam) ;
  2.        “””Greek”” model :God is a Principle of principles, the best of the best (Plato), the unmoved mover (Aristotle), the One even ecstasy does not reveal, impersonal and in no way evil or tainted by absence or privation of being (Plotinus), the First Intellect (Ibn Sina), a “God of the philosophers” (Whitehead). This abstract God figures in intellectual theologies, humanism & atheism. In the latter, by the “alpha privativum” of the Divine, as in a-theism, an absolute term is produced, but this time by negation instead of by affirmation. God is reduced to an abstract & absolute “no-absolute”. But for the Greek populace, the deities are anthropomorphic and display a variety of human passions and interests ;
  3.        Christian model : God is One essence in Three Persons : God the Father revealed by God’s incarnated Son, Jesus Christ, because, in and with God the Deifying Holy Spirit (either only from the Father, as in the Orthodox East, or from both Father and Son, as in the West). A God of Love, never impersonal, always without evil (pure of heart) and sole cause of goodness (Christianity) ;

     4.  Oriental model :God, The All, is One sheer Being present in every part of creation in terms of a manifold of  impersonal & personal Divine Self-manifestations (theophanies or modes of the One), as we see in Ancient Egypt, Alexandrian Hermetism, Hinduism (Vedanta), Jainism, Buddhism, Taoism and Hermeticism



The God in any religion is called the most KNOWLEDGEABLE. In Ancient “”Greece”” DIA(ZEUS) was the most powerful God because of that: his/her Knowledge.

English (6 entries.)
  Shqip (6 hyrje.) (ALBANIAN)
 know (p.t., p.p. knew, known)
  di (kr. thj., pj. dita, ditur), e di
English (2 entries.)
  Shqip (2 hyrje.)
  dije {f} ( dija)

In Ancient “”Greece””  AMALTHEIA(Αμαλθεια) or AMALTHIA (Αμαλθια) was the she-goat

  . ..τὴν μέν τε λόγος Διὶ μαζὸν ἐπισχεῖν… 

(or, according to some, Nymph ) nurse of the god Zeus who nourished him with her milk in a cave on Mount Ida in Krete .


Standard form Tosk form Gheg form Translation
është është âsht /osht/ â is


Read more of this post


The people are interested to know the ethymology of the words sometime, or anytime if you are a person who likes the languages and their origin. So it’s natural to open an Etimology Dictionary(usually to take the wrong information). So did we, being interested for the word ethnic, we opened the ONLINE ETYMOLOGY DICTIONARY:



comb. form of Gk. ethnos “people, nation, class” (see ethnic), used to form modern compounds such as ethnology (1842, by J.S. Mill) and ethnocentric, 1900, which was a technical term in social sciences until it began to be more widely used in the second half of the 20th century.


Felt a little bit surprised, because we found nowhere an etymological explanation of the word ethnos(which we already know the meaning, just asked for etymology of the word) we continued our search. So far so good,



c.1375, from Scottish, “heathen, pagan,” and having that sense first in Eng., from Gk. ta ethne, used in Septuagint translation to render Heb. goyim, pl. of goy “nation,” especially of non-Israelites, hence “Gentile nation.” Ta ethne is from Gk. ethnos “band of people living together, nation, people,” prop. “people of one’s own kind,” from PIE *swedh-no-, suffixed form of base *s(w)e- (see idiom). Sense of “peculiar to a race or nation” is 1851, return to the word’s original meaning; that of “different cultural groups” is 1935; and that of “racial, cultural or national minority group” is Amer.Eng. 1945. Ethnicity is from 1953; ethnic cleansing is from 1991.


At this point we are stunned. Ethnos –according to the “proffesional linguists”-derives from Read more of this post

Albanian language and the PIE.

Where did Albanian language originate from?
The most accepted theory between the linguists is that Albanian belongs to the IE languages group which have a common origin: the Proto-IE language, although the Albanian has all the specifics of a Pre-IE.
What is the PIE language (proto-Indo-European)?
The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, spoken by Read more of this post


The language of classical-helenic-romaic-byzantine Greece deserves a special attention in the philological studies. It is the first known literature language but considered a spoken language as well  like every other spoken one, is believed to have borrowed a large amount of loans from its substratum .

What is a substratum of a language?

The academical definition for it is the following:

In linguistics, a substratum (lat. sub: under + stratum: layer → lower layer) is a language which influences another one while that second language supplants it. The term is also used of substrate interference, i.e. the influence exerted by the substratum language on the supplanting language .

So under-stratum (language) is believed to be a foundation for another language. Read more of this post